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  • Writer's pictureKate

Exploring the Mental Health Benefits of Nature

Updated: 4 days ago

Mountain Views

Interacting with nature has emerged as a potent therapy, offering a myriad of benefits for mental health. Engaging with the natural world can significantly improve mood, alleviate stress and anger, foster relaxation, boost self-esteem, and enhance physical activity. It creates opportunities for social interactions, reducing loneliness and cultivating a deep-seated connection with the environment [1]. The diversity in nature ensures that everyone can find their unique form of solace, be it through walking, wildlife observation, gardening, or participating in conservation activities. This bespoke interaction makes nature therapy a vital tool in managing mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), proving especially beneficial in the challenging times of the COVID-19 pandemic [1][2].

Personal Transformations: My Journey

It was my psychology degree that offered me insights as to why I experienced such a distinct shift in my feelings when I was out in nature, and it appeared profoundly logical. For millennia, our ancestors spent their lives in the open wilderness, residing in caves, relying on daily hunting for sustenance and cooking their catches over fire. Hence, as the descendants of these beings, dwelling in concrete structures in urban areas with amenities like central heating and technology, for a comparatively short period compared to our ancestors, we're not evolutionarily accustomed to this lifestyle. We've spent generations as hunters and gatherers, and contemporary society seems too overwhelming. Our need for nature, green spaces, and a simpler existence is a primal need. Our evolution hasn't kept pace with our rapidly changing world, and what's more alarming for our children is that the rate of technological advancement feels overpowering. It's no surprise then that we're witnessing an apparent surge in mental health issues amongst the youth today. The importance of experiencing the outdoors has never been greater!

After completing that inspiring assignment, I resolved once again to embrace the great outdoors during my spare time. After having a child, any notion of free time had vanished, but as he grew older and quite honestly didn't wish to spend his spare time with me, I realised I had to find something for myself. This marked the beginning of my solo adventures. I embarked on my first solo hike in The Yorkshire Dales, and within an hour, I understood what I had been missing. The experience rejuvenated me; it felt like I had something for myself, and it bestowed a sense of unbounded freedom that was new to me. The peace that nature brought was undeniable, and not long after, I was compelled to unearth my tent for a night under the stars. Thoughts of our ancient ancestors sheltering in caves and building fires filled my mind. The insights from my psychology studies echoed loudly. Since then, there's been no turning back.

The Science Behind Nature and Mental Well-being

Delving into the scientific exploration of nature's profound impact on mental well-being reveals a multitude of benefits that span across cognitive, emotional, and psychological health. The intricate relationship between nature and mental health is not only intuitive but is increasingly supported by robust scientific evidence. Here, we explore some key findings that elucidate this connection:

Cognitive and Psychological Benefits:

  1. Improved Cognitive Function and Brain Activity:  Exposure to nature has been linked with enhanced cognitive function and increased brain activity, leading to clearer thinking and better concentration [3].

  2. Reduction in Mental Disorders in Children: A notable study in Denmark highlighted that children growing up in greener neighbourhoods exhibited a significantly reduced risk of developing mental disorders in later life [6].

  3. Enhanced Creativity and Problem-Solving:  Being in green environments not only aids attention and memory but also boosts creativity, a crucial aspect of personal and professional growth [10].

Emotional and Psychological Well-being:

  1. Stress and Anxiety Reduction:  Regular engagement with nature significantly decreases levels of stress and anxiety, contributing to overall mental peace and relaxation [10].

  2. Mood Improvements: A study published in the Journal of Positive Psychology found that just 20 minutes in a park-like setting could substantially boost one's mood [11].

  3. Decreased Rumination: Research by Stanford University revealed that a 90-minute walk in a natural setting could reduce negative emotions and rumination, a common issue in mental health disorders [11].

Long-term Health and Well-being:

  1. Lower Risks of Depression: Access to green spaces is inversely related to the risks of depression, showcasing the importance of integrating nature into urban planning for healthier communities [6].

  2. Increased Lifespan and Healthier Living: Living near parks and green spaces is associated with lower risks of several physical health issues and contributes to longer, healthier lives [7].

  3. Ecosystem Services and Ecotherapy: Despite being under-recognised, Ecotherapy and the benefits derived from ecosystem services play a critical role in promoting holistic well-being, addressing both physical and mental health challenges through activities like green exercise and horticultural therapy [12].

These findings underscore the essential role that nature plays in enhancing our mental well-being. From fostering emotional stability and reducing the risk of mental health disorders to improving cognitive functions and promoting a healthier lifestyle, the benefits of being outdoors are vast and varied. As we navigate through the complexities of modern life, integrating nature into our daily routines emerges not just as a luxury but a necessity for maintaining mental health and well-being [4][5][9][10][11][12].

Practical Tips for Incorporating Nature into Everyday Life

Integrating nature into our daily lives can be both simple and profoundly impactful. Here are practical tips to help you weave the essence of the outdoors into your everyday routine:

Start with Small Projects:

  • Plant a pollinator garden to attract bees and butterflies. This not only beautifies your space but also contributes to the ecosystem [19].

  • Build a bat house. Bats play a crucial role in controlling pests and pollinating plants [19].

Make Time for Green Spaces:

  • Aim to spend at least 120 minutes a week in nature. Research shows this significantly boosts health and psychological well-being [8][10].

  • Even a short walk in a park during a lunch break can enhance cognitive performance and problem-solving skills [6].

Mindful Practices:

  • Engage in mindful meditation outdoors to lower blood pressure, combat depression, and stimulate brain growth [20].

  • Spend 5 minutes standing outside with the sun on your face or take off your shoes to feel the grass [6].

Physical Exercise:

  • Walking not only strengthens the heart but also reduces anxiety and tones the legs. Aim for a 25-minute stroll while taking deep breaths [20][6].

  • Explore activities like kayaking, hiking, or bird watching. These not only provide exercise but also allow you to connect with nature [6].

Gardening and Creativity:

  • Gardening is a therapeutic activity that reduces stress, increases happiness and provides physical exercise, particularly for older adults [20].

  • Combine nature with creativity by planning a picnic, finding a shady tree to read under, or joining a community gardening group [6][21].

Explore Local Green Spaces:

  • To deepen your connection with the environment, join a community gardening or conservation group or try guided walks or nature-based activities [21].

Be Mindful of Nature Conservation:

  • Protect nature by recycling, walking instead of driving, or joining community conservation or clean-up groups [21].

By incorporating these activities into our lives, we not only enhance our well-being but also contribute to the health of our planet. Whether it's through small projects at home, spending time in green spaces, engaging in physical activities outdoors, or participating in community efforts to protect nature, every step taken is a step towards a healthier life and a healthier world [19][10][8][20][6][21].

Nature's Role in Physical Health

Exploring the great outdoors isn't just a journey for the mind; it's a profound, healthful expedition for the body. The physical health benefits of being outdoors are both vast and scientifically proven, offering a natural remedy to many of modern society's ailments. Here's how nature plays a pivotal role in maintaining and enhancing our physical health.

Key Physical Health Benefits of Nature:

  • Weight Management: Engaging in regular physical activities in natural settings can lead to a healthy weight or even weight loss due to increased activity levels [6].

  • Heart Health: Nature's calming effect reduces cortisol levels, muscle tension, and demands on the cardiovascular system, which in turn can lower heart rate and blood pressure [6].

  • Improved Sleep: The daily exposure to natural light helps regulate our sleep/wake cycles, leading to improved sleep quality [6].

  • Immune System Boost: Time spent in nature has been shown to enhance immune system function, alongside reducing blood pressure and stress hormone levels [7].

  • Chronic Disease: Exposure to nature may decrease death rates from chronic diseases, underscoring its importance in our daily lives [7].

Enhanced Exercise Experience:

  • Duration and Intensity: When people exercise outdoors, they tend to do so for longer periods and at greater intensities than when they exercise indoors [7].

  • Water and Green Space: The positive health effects of being outdoors are even more pronounced when the green space includes water, adding another layer to the therapeutic nature of outdoor activities [7].

  • Stress Reduction: Utilising parks and engaging in park programs not only substantially reduces stress but can also increase resilience, offering a cost-effective investment in our well-being [8].

  • Community and Health: Living in greener urban areas is associated with lower probabilities of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes and, ultimately, a lower mortality rate, highlighting the social and communal benefits of accessible nature [8].

  • Economic Benefits: A study in Lincoln, Nebraska, found that for every $1 invested in trails for physical activity, nearly $3 in direct medical benefits was realised, showcasing the economic advantage of investing in natural spaces for public health [8].

By integrating nature into our daily routines, we not only foster our mental and emotional well-being but significantly contribute to our physical health. The evidence is clear: spending time in nature is not just a leisure activity; it's a cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle. From reducing the risk of chronic diseases to enhancing our immune system and improving our cardiovascular health, the benefits of being outdoors for our physical health are undeniable [6][7][8].

Ecotherapy: A Formal Approach

The concept of Ecotherapy, a structured outdoor activity-based treatment, has shown promise in relieving symptoms of mild to moderate depression. It represents just one aspect of the broader spectrum of the benefits of being outdoors, advocating for a deeper, everyday engagement with 'everyday' nature. This approach underscores the importance of not just visiting but connecting with nature in our immediate surroundings through simple, accessible activities. The emphasis on quality, high-biodiversity natural spaces highlights the unequal access across the UK, stressing the need for inclusive initiatives that consider proximity, disability, health conditions, and safety to ensure everybody can reap the health benefits of being outdoors [1][3].

The types of Ecotherapy include:

Adventure Therapy: Utilises challenging outdoor activities for personal and interpersonal development.

Animal-Assisted Interventions/Therapy: Incorporates animals in therapeutic practices to enhance emotional and physical well-being.

Therapeutic Horticulture and Farming: Engages individuals in gardening and farming activities, promoting relaxation and stress relief.

Green Exercise: Encourages physical activities in natural settings to boost mood and physical health.

Conservation Activities: Involves participants in environmental conservation efforts, creating a sense of purpose and connection to the earth [4].

Ecotherapy is not just about being outdoors; it's a therapeutic journey that combines physical activity, social interaction, and the healing ambience of green environments. This multifaceted approach has been shown to effectively treat a range of conditions, including depression, anxiety, PTSD, and the effects of isolation. The benefits are manifold, offering relief from symptoms through natural light exposure for those with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and providing a structured yet flexible environment for managing mental health problems such as anxiety and depression [1][15].

Importantly, ecotherapy programs are accessible and versatile, designed to suit various preferences and needs. They can be found in both rural and urban settings, from parks and gardens to farms and woodlands, ensuring that the healing power of nature is within reach for many. Activities range from walking and sitting in nature to more immersive experiences such as gardening, green exercise, and nature-based therapy. These programs can stand alone or complement other treatments, offering a holistic approach to mental health care. Access to Ecotherapy can be facilitated through local Mind organisations, GPs, or other professional services, making it an inclusive option for those seeking alternative or supplementary treatment methods [16][17][18].

The Challenges of Urban Living

Urban living, while offering numerous advantages such as access to healthcare, education, and social interaction, presents unique challenges that can significantly impact mental health. The rapid urbanisation and the consequent demographic shifts have led to an increase in mental health issues, underscoring the need for a nuanced understanding of urban living's impact on well-being. Here, we delve into the challenges posed by urban environments and their effects on mental health:

Socioeconomic and Environmental Stressors:

  • Overcrowding and Pollution: Urban areas, characterised by high population densities, often suffer from overcrowded living conditions and pollution. These factors contribute to increased stress levels and can exacerbate mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression [27].

  • Violence and Reduced Social Support: Cities can also have high levels of violence and crime, further increasing residents' stress and anxiety. The fast-paced and often impersonal nature of urban life can lead to reduced social support networks, isolating individuals and impacting their mental health negatively [27].

Disparities in Access to Nature:

  • Systemic Barriers: Not all urban residents have equal access to natural spaces, with systemic racism and economic disparities playing significant roles in this inequality. Such barriers prevent many individuals from experiencing the mental health benefits of nature, exacerbating existing health disparities [14].

  • Lack of Green Spaces: Urbanisation often leads to a scarcity of accessible green spaces, limiting opportunities for residents to engage with nature and experience its therapeutic effects. This lack of natural access is linked to higher rates of mental health challenges [28].

Urban Dynamics and Mental Health:

  • Increased Mental Health Disorders: The pace and lifestyle of urban living, coupled with environmental and social stressors, have been associated with higher rates of mental health disorders. Cities have almost a 40% higher risk of depression, over 20% more anxiety, and double the risk of schizophrenia compared to rural areas [30].

  • Cultural and Social Factors: Cultural dynamics and adaptation to urban life can influence the prevalence and management of mental disorders. Factors such as socioeconomic stress, particularly among urban women, and the stripping away of protective factors leading to social isolation form the basis of the ecological hypothesis of schizophrenia and contribute to higher rates of anxiety and depression [27][31].

While this research does sound quite scary, there are many advantages to living in urban areas, particularly regarding socialisation. However, what this research emphasises is the ever-growing need to find the time to incorporate nature into everyday life.

Long-term Benefits and Sustainability

In our exploration of the myriad benefits that the great outdoors offers, it becomes increasingly clear how deeply intertwined our well-being and the health of our planet are. One of the most profound yet often overlooked long-term benefits of fostering a connection with nature is its potential to alleviate anxieties about climate change and inspire actions towards environmental conservation. This symbiotic relationship between our mental health and environmental stewardship can be understood through the following points:

Mental Health and Environmental Anxiety:

  • Understanding the Link: Engaging with nature not only provides immediate mental health benefits but also deepens our understanding of the environment's fragility and our role in its preservation. This heightened awareness can transform anxieties about climate change into actionable knowledge, motivating us to adopt more sustainable lifestyles [1].

  • Empowerment through Action: By participating in conservation efforts, whether through small daily actions or more significant community initiatives, individuals often experience a sense of empowerment and purpose. This active involvement can significantly mitigate feelings of helplessness and anxiety related to environmental issues, fostering a more hopeful outlook on the future [1].

Encouraging Environmental Conservation:

  • From Appreciation to Action: Appreciation for nature cultivated through regular engagement with the outdoors naturally leads to a desire to protect it. This shift from passive enjoyment to active conservation is crucial for the sustainability of our natural environments [1].

  • Community and Conservation: Collective efforts in conservation not only amplify the impact on the environment but also strengthen community bonds. Organising or participating in clean-up drives, tree-planting events, or wildlife protection initiatives are excellent ways for individuals to contribute to environmental sustainability while enhancing their social well-being [1].

This dual benefit of connecting with nature—improving our mental health and contributing to the planet's sustainability—highlights the importance of integrating nature into our daily lives. It's a reminder that each step we take towards embracing the outdoors not only nurtures our soul but also guards the future of our planet. Through this journey, we learn that our well-being and the health of our environment are inextricably linked, urging us to act responsibly and compassionately towards the world we inhabit [1].


Through the exploration of nature's transformative power on mental and physical well-being, we've uncovered a multitude of pathways by which engaging with the outdoors enriches our lives. From my personal story of embarking on solo adventures to the growing scientific evidence highlighting the myriad benefits of nature for our cognitive, emotional, and physical health, the narrative is straightforward. The great outdoors is not just a backdrop for our lives but a critical, active participant in our journey toward holistic health. This symbiotic relationship between humans and nature underscores the importance of everyday connections with the natural world, encouraging us to weave these interactions into the fabric of our daily lives.

Recognising the challenges urban living poses to accessing green spaces, it becomes increasingly vital to advocate for equitable access to natural environments for all. By fostering stronger community bonds through conservation efforts, we not only enhance our collective well-being but also contribute to the sustainability of our planet. As we continue to navigate the complexities of modern life, let us remember the profound, healing embrace of nature and take every opportunity to get outside, enriching our lives and nurturing our connection with the world around us.


What are the positive effects of spending time outdoors in nature?

Spending time in natural settings can enhance your mood, alleviate stress and anger, provide a sense of relaxation, boost your physical health, and increase your confidence and self-esteem. Additionally, being outdoors encourages physical activity, allows for social interactions, and fosters a connection with your local community.

How does nature serve as an effective form of therapy?

Nature therapy is effective because it has been proven to mitigate symptoms of depression and anxiety and positively influence mood. Exposure to nature can lower cortisol levels, which reduces physiological stress. Moreover, engaging in physical activity in natural environments can be particularly beneficial for individuals coping with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

In what ways is being outdoors therapeutic?

The therapeutic qualities of the outdoors stem from its ability to decrease anxiety and mitigate stress and feelings of anger. While exercise, in general, is beneficial, doing so in natural settings amplifies these effects. Regular visits to green spaces are associated with a decreased risk of depression and enhancements in concentration and attention.

Why is spending time in the significant outdoors important?

The great outdoors plays a crucial role in improving mood, bolstering confidence and self-esteem, and fostering a sense of connection with the community and the natural world. Research indicates that investing a minimum of 120 minutes per week in outdoor activities is linked to better health and well-being, and this time does not need to be continuous.

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